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Theory of Chlorination and Operation

 

WHAT IS SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE?

Sodium hypochlorite, “NaOCl” (also known as “hypo”, “bleach”, or “liquid chlorine”), is a powerful oxidant that is used world-wide for the chlorination of water for disinfection

HOW ON-SITE SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE IS PRODUCED?

Salt is composed of sodium and chloride. When in solution and electricity DC  is passed through special electrodes, the chlorides will disassociate to form chlorine. The process is basically as follows:

Electrolysis occurs in a cell when a DC current is passed through a saline water  solution or brine

At the anode: Oxidation of chloride ions produce chlorine (Cl2)

At the cathode: Reduction of water produce sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen (H2)

Liberated chlorine reacts with the sodium hydroxide to generate sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)

The overall reaction is as follows:

2NaCl (salt) + H2O (water) NaOCl (hypo) + NaCl (salt) + H2 (hydrogen)

 

DOSING OF CHLORINE INTO THE WATER

One liter of 0.6% (6000 ppm) sodium hypochlorite solution mixed into 6000 liters of water will produce a 1ppm concentration. Likewise, to produce a 2 ppm concentration, add 2 liters of 0.6% sodium hypochlorite solution to 6000 liters of water.
 

TANK CAPACITY

DOSAGE OF THE SOLUTION OF NaOCl AT 0.6% CONCENTRATION

 

 

2 PPM

3 PPM

4 PPM

Gals.

Liters.

Liters.

Gals.

Grams of Cl2

Liters.

Gals

Grams of Cl2

Liters.

Gals.

Grams of Cl2

1000

3800

1.3

0.3

7.6

1.9

0.5

11.4

2.5

0.7

15.1

5000

19000

6.3

1.7

37.9

9.5

2.5

56.8

12.6

3.3

75.7

6000

23000

7.6

2.0

45.4

11.4

3.0

68.1

15.1

4.0

90.9

7000

26000

8.8

2.3

53.0

13.2

3.5

79.5

17.7

4.7

106.0

8000

30000

10.1

2.7

60.6

15.1

4.0

90.9

20.2

5.3

121.1

9000

34000

11.4

3.0

68.1

17.0

4.5

102.2

22.7

6.0

136.3

10000

38000

12.6

3.3

75.7

18.9

5.0

113.6

25.2

6.7

151.4

 

 

                                        ADVANTAGES OF ELECTROCHLORINATION:

                               - Raw material: locally available (water + salt + electricity)

                               - On-site: generated at the point of use and application

                               - On demand: only when required

                               - No bulk storage: because is generated on demand

                               - Safe for the operator: low concentration

                               - Safe for environment: chlorine decomposes back into common salt

                               - Generate Sustainable Projects

 
 
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